Information For Authors

Author guide

You can use this author guide to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review.


Ensure that the following items are present:


Covering letter

In the covering letter the corresponding author (One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: E-mail address and Full postal address) should confirm that neither the manuscript nor any parts of its content are currently under consideration or published in another journal. In covering letter authors can suggest potential reviewers name and address (affiliations and email address).





Include title, authors and their affiliations, abstract, keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, conclusion, acknowledgment, references, figures (include relevant captions), tables (including titles, description, footnotes). Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided. Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'. All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa.


References citation style:

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). The APA 6th should be used as references citation style. The EndNote citation management software package can be used to ensure that your manuscript has the least mistake in citation when you write.


Tables:Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


For printing, we need high resolution photographs (300 dpi at published size) or line drawings at 600 dpi.

 Manuscript structure:

Subdivision - numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

  1. 1.     Introduction

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

  1. 2.     Material and methods

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

  1. 3.     Results and discussion

Results should be clear and concise. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

  1. 4.     Conclusions

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section.