Information For Authors

Author guide


You can use this author guide to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review.


Ensure that the following items are present:

Covering letter

In the covering letter the corresponding author (One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: E-mail address and Full postal address) should confirm that neither the manuscript nor any parts of its content are currently under consideration or published in another journal. In covering letter authors can suggest potential reviewers name and address (affiliations and email address).


Include title, authors and their affiliations, abstract, keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, conclusion, acknowledgment, references, figures (include relevant captions), tables (including titles, description, footnotes). Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided. Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'. All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa.

 Manuscript structure:

Subdivision - numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2,), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

  1. 1.     Introduction

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

  1. 2.     Material and methods

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

  1. 3.     Results and discussion

Results should be clear and concise. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

  1. 1.                   4.     Conclusions

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section.



Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


For printing, we need high resolution photographs (300 dpi at published size) or line drawings at 600 dpi.


Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.


Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.


Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.


References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.


Reference style

References citation style:

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). The Harvard should be used as references citation style. The EndNote citation management software package can be used to ensure that your manuscript has the least mistake in citation when you write.

Text: All citations in the text should refer to:

1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;

3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.

Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references can be listed either first alphabetically, then chronologically, or vice versa.

Examples: 'as demonstrated (Nosrati, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Nosrati and Collins, 1999)…. Or, as demonstrated (Collins, 1999; Nosrati, 2000)… Salehi et al. (2010) have recently shown …'

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

Reference to a journal publication:

- Soundranayagam, J.P., 2012. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques. Geoscience frontiers, 3(2), 189-196.


-Scanlon, B.R., Reedy, R.C., Stonestrom, D.A., Prudic, D.E., Dennehy, K.F., 2005. Impact of land use and land cover change on groundwater recharge and quality in the southwestern US. Global Change Biology, 11(10), 1577-1593.

Reference to a book:

Cooney, R., 2006. 11. A long and winding road? Precaution from principle to practice in biodiversity conservation. Implementing the Precautionary Principle, p.223.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

-Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

Reference to a website:

-Cancer Research UK, 1975. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. (accessed 13 March 2003).

Reference to a dataset:

 [dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1.