Paleogeography and regional interpretation of facies in Tirgan Formation, west of Kopet-Dagh sedimentary basin, northeast of Iran

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Associate professor of geology, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Phd student of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

In order to study the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, microfacies, depositional setting and also to reconstruct the paleo-environmental conditions of the Tirgan Formation, three outcrop sections were selected in the western part of the Kopet-Daghh sedimentary basin. These sections locate at the Estarkhi village (30 km East of Shirvan city), the Jozak (40 km West of Bojnourd city) and the Zaw Mountain (45 km far from the Kalaleh city). Geographical coordinates of these outcrop sections are: 57o, 51’, 31’’ longitude and 37o, 11’, 29’’ latitude in Estrakhi section, 56o, 42’, 25’’ longitude and 37o, 24’, 55.8’’ latitude in Jozak section, and finally, 55o, 45’, 10.6’’ longitude and 37o, 31’, 20’’ latitude in Zaw section. The Tirgan Formation has a thickness of 129 m in Estarkhi, 362 m in Jozak and 639 m in Zaw section, in which measured and samples to be used in this study. A total number of 62, 102 and 226 rock samples was taken respectively from the Estarkhi, Jozak and Zaw sections, and used for the microscopic studies. Therefore, a total number of 700 thin-sections were prepared from the rock samples and studied under the microscope. In Estarkhi section, the Shurijeh Formation is overlain conformably by the Tirgan Formation. Moreover, the upper contact of the Tirgan Formation with the upper rock unit, the Sarcheshmeh Formation, is continues and conformable. In this outcrop section, the Tirgan Formation begins with siliciclastic deposits with intercalations of marls, representing a gradational passage from the continental Shurijeh Formation to the marine deposits of the Tirgan Formation. The Jozak section represents a conformable and continues contact between the Tirgan Formation with the underlying Shurijeh Formation, but, its upper contact with the overlying Abderaz Formation is cut by a fault. In Zaw section, the lower contact of the Tirgan Formation with the Zard Formation is continues and conformable, but, its upper contact with the younger deposits is covered and unclear. Based on the distribution of facies belts, three paleogeographical maps were prepared for the study area. They are: Hauterivian?-lower Barremian, lower Barremian-upper Barremian and upper Barremian-lower Aptian. Analysis of these maps shows that during the Hauterivian?-lower Barremian, in the far eastern part of the study are (e.g. Estarkhi section), the Tirgan Formation includes in siliciclastic deposits with some marine marls, in that the detrital sediments was carried to the foreland basin as a result of erosion of high structures. In the same time, the western parts of the study area was covered by deposits belonging to a tidal-flat depositional setting, representing a deepening trend from the East towards the West of the area. During the Barremian (lower Barremian-upper Barremian), a major deepening trend has occurred for the both vertical and horizontal extend regionally in the study area. Therefore, the Estarkhi area was covered by tidal-flat deposits, and in the same time, the deepening trend was continued towards the west, led to the deposition of shoal and open marine facies in the Jozak and Zaw area. Finally, in the upper Barremian-lower Aptian, a stable condition was govern for the entire area, led to the deposition of orbitolina bearing limestones totally in the study area. Vertical distribution of facies belts shows that the eastern part of the study area (e.g. Estarkhi section), represents a major deepening upward trend during the upper Barremian-lower Aptian, which is comparable with general and global transgressive trends for the Barremian-Aptian interval. But, in the western part (e.g. Jozak and Zaw areas), the bathymetry was often stable, and somehow, shows a shallowing trend, that probably belongs to the role of basement faults and local tectonic activities, creating various accommodation space on the shallow platform setting in this part of the Kopet-Daghh Basin.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

Paleogeography and regional interpretation of facies in Tirgan Formation, west of Kopet-Dagh sedimentary basin, northeast of Iran

Authors [فارسی]

  • Mohamad Vahidinia 1
  • Atefeh Chenarani 2
1 Associate professor of geology, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Phd student of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract [فارسی]

In order to study the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, microfacies, depositional setting and also to reconstruct the paleo-environmental conditions of the Tirgan Formation, three outcrop sections were selected in the western part of the Kopet-Daghh sedimentary basin. These sections locate at the Estarkhi village (30 km East of Shirvan city), the Jozak (40 km West of Bojnourd city) and the Zaw Mountain (45 km far from the Kalaleh city). Geographical coordinates of these outcrop sections are: 57o, 51’, 31’’ longitude and 37o, 11’, 29’’ latitude in Estrakhi section, 56o, 42’, 25’’ longitude and 37o, 24’, 55.8’’ latitude in Jozak section, and finally, 55o, 45’, 10.6’’ longitude and 37o, 31’, 20’’ latitude in Zaw section. The Tirgan Formation has a thickness of 129 m in Estarkhi, 362 m in Jozak and 639 m in Zaw section, in which measured and samples to be used in this study. A total number of 62, 102 and 226 rock samples was taken respectively from the Estarkhi, Jozak and Zaw sections, and used for the microscopic studies. Therefore, a total number of 700 thin-sections were prepared from the rock samples and studied under the microscope. In Estarkhi section, the Shurijeh Formation is overlain conformably by the Tirgan Formation. Moreover, the upper contact of the Tirgan Formation with the upper rock unit, the Sarcheshmeh Formation, is continues and conformable. In this outcrop section, the Tirgan Formation begins with siliciclastic deposits with intercalations of marls, representing a gradational passage from the continental Shurijeh Formation to the marine deposits of the Tirgan Formation. The Jozak section represents a conformable and continues contact between the Tirgan Formation with the underlying Shurijeh Formation, but, its upper contact with the overlying Abderaz Formation is cut by a fault. In Zaw section, the lower contact of the Tirgan Formation with the Zard Formation is continues and conformable, but, its upper contact with the younger deposits is covered and unclear. Based on the distribution of facies belts, three paleogeographical maps were prepared for the study area. They are: Hauterivian?-lower Barremian, lower Barremian-upper Barremian and upper Barremian-lower Aptian. Analysis of these maps shows that during the Hauterivian?-lower Barremian, in the far eastern part of the study are (e.g. Estarkhi section), the Tirgan Formation includes in siliciclastic deposits with some marine marls, in that the detrital sediments was carried to the foreland basin as a result of erosion of high structures. In the same time, the western parts of the study area was covered by deposits belonging to a tidal-flat depositional setting, representing a deepening trend from the East towards the West of the area. During the Barremian (lower Barremian-upper Barremian), a major deepening trend has occurred for the both vertical and horizontal extend regionally in the study area. Therefore, the Estarkhi area was covered by tidal-flat deposits, and in the same time, the deepening trend was continued towards the west, led to the deposition of shoal and open marine facies in the Jozak and Zaw area. Finally, in the upper Barremian-lower Aptian, a stable condition was govern for the entire area, led to the deposition of orbitolina bearing limestones totally in the study area. Vertical distribution of facies belts shows that the eastern part of the study area (e.g. Estarkhi section), represents a major deepening upward trend during the upper Barremian-lower Aptian, which is comparable with general and global transgressive trends for the Barremian-Aptian interval. But, in the western part (e.g. Jozak and Zaw areas), the bathymetry was often stable, and somehow, shows a shallowing trend, that probably belongs to the role of basement faults and local tectonic activities, creating various accommodation space on the shallow platform setting in this part of the Kopet-Daghh Basin.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • Estarkhi section
  • Jozak section
  • Kopet-Daghh sedimentary basin
  • Lithostratigraphy
  • Tirgan Formation
  • Zaw section
Adabi, M.H., Zohdi, A., Ghabeishavi, A. & Amiri-Bakhtiyar, H., 2008. Applications of nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera in depositional environment and sequencestratigraphy: an example from the Eocene deposits in Zagros basin, SW Iran. Facies, 54(4), 499-512.
Adabi, M.H. & Asadi, M.E., 2009. Microfacies and geochemistry of the Ilam Formation in the Tange Rashid area, Izeh, SW Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 33, 267-277.
Adabi, M.H., Salehi, M.A. & Ghabeishavi, A., 2010. Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and geochemistry of Lower Cretaceous carbonates (Fahliyan Formation) south-west Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 39, 148-160.
Adachi, N., Ezaki, Y. & Liu, J., 2004. The fabric and origins of peloids immediately after the end-Permian extinction, Guizhou province south China. Journal of sedimentary Geology, 164, 161-178.
Afshar-Harb, A., 1969. History of oil exploration and brief description of the geology of the Sarakhs area and the anticline of Khangiran. Bull. Iran. Petrol. Inst., 37, 86-94 (in Persian).
Afshar Harb, A., 1979. The Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Petroleum Geology of the Kopet-Daghh Region, Northern Iran. Ph.D thesis, Imperial College, University of London, 316.
Afshar, A., 1982. Geological map of Sarakhs, 1: 250.000. Map. No L4, National Iranian Oil Company.
Alsharhan, A.S. & Kendall, C.S.C., 2003. Holocene coastal carbonate and evaporates of Southern Arabian Gulf and their ancient analogues. Earth Science Review, 61, 191-243.
Arnaud-Vanneu, A., 1980. Micropaleontologie, paleoecologie et sedimentologied une platforme carbonate de la marge passive de la Tethys, Geology Alpine, 11, 867-874.
Arnaud, H. & Arnaud-Vanneau, A., 1991. Les Calcaires urgoniens des Massifs subalpins septentrionaux et du Jura (France): âge et discussion des données stratigraphiques. Géologie Alpine, 67, 63-79.
Arnaud-Vanneau, A. & Schroeder, R., 1976. Paleodictyoconus actinostoma n. sp. Orbitolinide nouveau des “Couches a Orbitolines” intra-urgoniennes du Vercors (France). Geobios, 9(3), 279-289.
Arnaud Vanneau, A. & Premoli Silva, I., 1995. Biostratigraphy and systematic description of benthic foraminifers from Mid-Cretaceous shallow water carbonate platform sediments at sites 878 and 879 (Mid and Takuyo-Daisan Guyots). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific results, 144, 199-219.
Bachmann, M. & Hirsch, F., 2006: Lower Cretaceous Platform of the eastern Levant (Galilee and Golan Heights): Stratigraphy and second-order sea level change, Cretaceous Research, 27, 487-512.
Bassoullet, J.P., Bernier, P., Conrad, M.A., Deloffre, R. & Jaffrezo, M., 1978: Les Algaeues Dasycladales du Jurassique et du Cretace. Geobios, Mem. Sp, 2, 1-33.
Bathurst, R.G.C., 1975. Carbonate sediments and their Diagenesis, Second edition: Developments in sedimentology 12, Elsevier, Amesterdam, 658.
Berberian, M., et al., 1981. Towards a palaeogeography andtectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 18, 210-265.
Bernaus, J.M., Arnaud-Vanneau, A. & Caus, E., 2003. Carbonate platform sequences tratigraphy in a rapidly subsiding area: the Late Barremian-Early Aptian of the Organyà Basin, Spanish Pyrenees. Sedimentary Geology, 159, 177-201.
Biju-Duval, B., Brunet, M.F., Cadet, J.P., Crasquin, S. & Sandulescu, M., 2000. Atlas PeriTethys, Palaeogeographical Maps. CCGM/CGMW, Paris.
Brunet, M.F. and Cloething, S., 2003. Integrated Peri-Tethyan Basin studies (Peri-Tethys Programme). Sedimentary Geology, 156, 1-10.
Bucur, I.I., 2000. Provincialism of some Lower Cretaceous dasycladalgaeae from Mid- and Eastern Europe; paleogeographic significance. 31st International Geological Congress Rio de Janeiro (CD Rom, Abstracts).
Bucur, I.I., 2001. Palaeobiogeographic significance of some LowerCretaceous dasyclads from mid- and eastern Europe. In: de Vos J(ed) Palaeontology, communication and the public. 3rd EuropeanPalaeont Congress 2001 Leiden abstracts, 10.
Bucur, I.I., Rashidi, K. & Senowbari-Daryan, B., 2012. Early Cretaceous calcareous algaeae from central Iran (Taft Formation, south of Aliabad, near Yazd). Facies, 58(4), 605-636.
Bucur, I.I., Majidifard, M.R. & Senowbari-Daryan, B., 2013. Early Cretaceous calcareous benthic microfossils from the eastern Alborz and western Kopet-Daghh (northern Iran) and their stratigraphic significance. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 9(1), 23-37.
Burchette, T.P., Wright, V.P. & Faulkner, T.J., 1990. Oolithic sandbody depositional models and geometries, Mississippian of southwest Britain: implication in carbonate ramp setting: Sedimentary Geology, 68, 87-115.
Carras, N., Conrad, M.A. & Radoicic, R., 2006. Salpingoporella, a common genus of Mesozoic Dasycladales (Calcareous green algaeae) Revue de paleobiologie, 25(2), 457-517.
Carević, I., Abad, M.T.K., Ljubović-Obradović, D., Vaziri, S.H., Mirković, M., Aryaei, A.A. & Ashouri, A.R., 2013. Comparisons between the Urgonian platform carbonates from eastern Serbia (Carpatho-Balkanides) and northeast Iran (Kopet-Dagh Basin): Depositional facies, microfacies, biostratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology. Cretaceous Research, 40, 110-130.
Charollais, J., Clavel, B., Schroeder, R., Busnardo, R., Decrouez, D. & Cherchi, A., 2003. La migration de la plate-forme urgonienne entre le Jura plissé et les Chaînes subalpines septentrionales (France, Suisse). Geobios, 36, 665-674.
Dalbiez, E., 1958. Cuneolina hensoni, a new lowermost Cretaceous marker in southwestern France. Micropaleontology, 4(1), 97-101.
Dragastan, O., 1999. Jurassic-Cretaceous calcareous algaeae of theTransylvanides, Inner Dacides and Moesian Platform (Romania), Revista Española de Micropaleontologia, 31, 185-218.
Ellis, B. & Messina, A., 1941- 2009. Catalogue of Foraminifera, Museum Natural History, Special publication.
Flugel, E., 2010: Microfacies analysis of carbonate Rock: Analysis, Interpretation and Application. Springer-Verlagge, Berlin, 976.
Insalaco, E., Virgone, A., Courme, B., Gaillot, J., Kamali, M., Moallemi, A., Lotfpour, M. & Monibi, S., 2006. Upper DalanMember and Kangan Formation between the Zagros Mountains and offshore Fars, Iran: depositional system, biostratigraphy and stratigraphic architecture. GeoArabia, 11(2), 75-176.
Ivanova, D. & Kolodziej, B., 2010. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous foraminifera from the Stramberk-type limestones, Polish Outer Carpathians. Studia UniversitaTethys Babes-Bolyai, Geologia, 55(2), 3-31.
Javanbakht, M., Ghazi, S., Moussavi Harami, S.R. & Mahboubi, A., 2013. Depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Tirgan Formation (Barremian-Aptian) in Central Kopet-Daghh, NE, Iran. Journal of the Geological society of India, 32 (16), 701-711.
Griesbach, C.L., 1881. Field Notes., No. 5 to accompany a geological sketch map of Afghanistan and northeastern Khorasan. Indian Geological Survey, 20, (Pt.2).
Hafmann, A., Driks, P.H.G.M. & Jelsma, H.A., 2004. Shallowing upward carbonate cycles in the Blingwe Grainstone belt Zimbabwe: a record of Archeansea level oscillations, Sedimentary Research, 74(1), 64-81.
Henson, F.R., 1948. Larger imperforate Foraminifera of southwestern Asia. Families Lituolidae, Orbitolinidae and Meandropsinidae. BriTethysh Museum (Nat Hist), London, 126.
Hosseini, S. A., 2014. Holostratigraphy of the Berriasian-Aptian Carbonate Platform Deposits from the Zagros Fold-thrust Belt, SW Iran. Ph.D thesis, University of Geneva, Switzerland, 273.
Hosseini, S.A., Conrad, M.A., Clavel, B. & Carras, N., 2016. Berriasian-Aptian shallow water carbonates in the Zagros fold-thrust belt, SW Iran: integrated Sr-isotope dating and biostratigraphy. Cretaceous Research, 57, 257-288.
Husinec, A., Velic, I., Fucek, L., Vlahović, I., Maticec, D., Ostric, N. & Korbar, T., 2000. Mid Cretaceous Orbitolininid (Foraminiferida) record from the islands of Cres and Losing (Croalia). Cretaceous Research, 21, 155-171.
Kalantari, A., 1969. Foraminifera from the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous successions of the Koppet-Dagh region (N.E. Iran). National Iranian Oil Company, Geological Laboratories, Publication, 3, 1-298.
Kendall, G.C.C., Alsharhan, A.S. & Marlow, L., 2010. Regional stratigraphy of the Southern Tethyan Margin, lithofacies, sequence stratigraphy, source, seal and reservoir rocks. Search and Discovery Article, 10273, AAPG presentation.
Kiessling, W., Flügel, E. & Golonka, J., 2003. Patterns of Phanerozoic carbonate sedimentation. Lethaia, 36, 195-226.
Kozlowski, W., 2003. Age, sedimentary environment and palaeographical position of the Late Silurian iilitic beds in the Holy cross Mountain (Central Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 53, 341-357.
Lesemi, Y., 1995. Platform carbonate of upper Jurassic Mozduran Formation in the Kopet-Dagh basin, NE Iran, Facies, Paleoenviroments and sequences. Sedimentary Geology, 99, 151-164.
Lasemi, Y., Jahanj, D., Amin-Rasouli, H. & Lasemi, Z., 2012. Ancient Carbonate Tidalites. In: Davies, R.A & Dalrymple, R. W (EDS). Principles of Tidal sedimentology. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg, London, 621.
Loeblich, A.R. & Tappan, H., 1988. Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 970.
Luperto Sinni, E. & Masse, J.P., 1993. The Early Cretaceous Dasycladales from the Apulia region (Southern Italy): biostratigraphic distribution and paleobiogeographic significance. In: Barattolo, F., et al., (eds) Studies on fossil benthic algaeae. Boll. Soc. Paleont. Ital., 1, 295-309.
Lyberis, N. & Manby, G., 1999. Oblique to orthogonal convergence across the Turan block in the post-Miocene. AAPG bulletin, 83, 1135-1160.
Mahboubi, A., Moussavi-Harami, R., Carpenter, S.J., Aghaei, A. & Collins, L.B., 2010. Petrographical and geochemical evidences for paragenetic sequence interpretation of diagenesis in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments: Mozduran Formation (Upper Jurassic), south of Agh-Darband, NE Iran. Carbonate and Evaporites, 25, 231-246.
Marshall, J.F. & Davies, P.J., 1975. High- magnesium calcite ooids from the Great Barrier Reef, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 45, 285-292.
Maslov, V. P., 1960. New Cretaceous algaeae of Kopet-Dagh (Turkmenistan). Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, 14, 198-223.
Mehrnusch, M., 1973. Eine Orbitoliniden-Fauna aus der Unterkreidevon Esfahan (Zentral-Iran), Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und pa-la- ontologie monatshefte, 6, 374-382.
Michalík, J., 1994. Lower Cretaceous carbonate facies, Western Carpathians. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 111, 263-277.
Molaei, M., Vaziri, H., Taherpour Khalil Abad, M. & Taheri, J., 2017. Early cretaceous Neotrocholina Reichel, 1956 from the Tirgan Formation, Kopet-Daghh sedimentary basin, NE Iran. Systematic and biometric interpretation, Arabian Journal of Geosciences.
Nabavi, M., 1972a. Lower Cretaceous deposits in the Taft-Yazd and Khor area. Geological Survey of Iran, 106, 127.
Nabavi, M.H., 1972b. Geological quadrangle map of Iran, H 9, Yazd 1:250,000. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran.
Nabavi, M.H., et al., 1970. Geological map of Yazd, 1: 250.000. Map. No H9, Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran.
Peybernès, B. & Conrad, M.A., 1979. Les algaeues du Cretace inferieur deHongrie. Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor. Prod. Elf-Aquitaine, 3, 743-752.
Peybernès, B., Ivanov, M., Nikolov, T., Ciszaka, R. & Stoykovac, K., 2000. Séquences dedépôt à l’articulation plate-forme urgonienne-bassin (intervalle BarrémieneAlbien) dans le Prébalkan occidental (Bulgarie du Nord-Ouest). Sciencesde la Terre et des planètes/Earth and Planetary Sciences, 330, 547-553.
Pichon, X. & Monin, A.S., 1986. Geological evolution of the Tethys belt from the Atlantic to the Pamir since the Lias. Tectonophysics, 123, 241-315.
Rami, M., Vaziri, M.R., Taherpour Khalil Abad, M., Hosseini, S.A., Carevic, I. & Allameh, M., 2012. Micropaleontology of the Lower Cretaceous strata from the Bararig Mountain, SE Iran. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas, 29(1), 63-75.
Stampfli, G. & Borel, G., 2002. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrons: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 196(1-2), 17-33, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00588-X.
Taherpour Khalil Abad, M., Aryaei, A., Ashouri, A. & Ghaderi, A., 2011. Introducting some echinoderms from the Tirgan Formation Kopeh- Dagh basin, NE of Iran, Journal. Geopersia, 1(1), 83-94.
Samankassou, E., Tresch, J. & Strasser, A., 2005. Origin of peloids in Early Cretaceous deposits, Dorset, South England. Facies, 51, 264-273.
Sandberg, P.A., 1983. An occilation trend in phanerozoic non-skeletal carbonate mineralogy, Nature, 305, 119-122.
Sanders, D. & Hofling, R., 2000. Carbonate deposition in mixed silisiclastic-carbonateenvironments on top of an orogenetic wedge (Late Cretaceous, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), Sedimentary Geology, 137, 127-146.
Schroeder, R., 1963. Palorbitolina, ein neues Subgenus der Gattung Orbitolina (Foram.),. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 117, 346-359.
Schroeder, R., Van Buchem, F.S.P., Cherchi, A., Baghbani, D., Vincent, B., Immenhauser, A. & Granier, B., 2010. Revised orbitolinid biostratigraphic zonation for The Barremian- Aptian of the eastern Arabian plate and implications for regional stratigraphic correlations. Geoarbia, Special publications, 4(1), 49-96.
Sim, M.S. & Lee, Y.I., 2006. Sequence stratigraphy of the Middle Cambrian Daegi Formation (Korea), and its bearing on the regional stratigraphic correlation. Sedimentary Geology, 191, 151-169.
Taherpour Khali Abad, M., Schlagintweit, F., Ashouri, A.R. & Aryaei, A.A., 2009. Juraella bifurcata BERNIER, 1984 (Calcareous algaea Gymnocodiaceae?) from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Tirgan Formation of the Kopet-Daghh basin, north-east Iran. Journal of Alpine Geology, 51, 79-86.
Taherpour Khalil Abad, M., Schlagintweit, F., Vaziri, S.H., Aryaei, A.A. & Ashouri, A.R., 2013. Balkhania balkhanica Mamontova, 1966 (benthic foraminifera) and Kopetdagaria sphaerica Maslov, 1960 (dasycladale algaea) from the Lower Cretaceous Tirgan Formation of the Kopet-Daghh mountain range (NE-Iran) and their palaeobiogeographic significance. Facies, 59, 267-285.
Tewari, V.C., 1994. Sedimentary of the rocks of Deoban Basin, Dhuraphat area, Sarju Valley, eastern Kumaon Lesser Himalaya. Geoscience, 15(2), 117-162.
Tucker, M.E., Bathurst, R.G.C., 1990. Meteoric diagenesis. In: Tucker, ME Bathurst R.G.C. (Eds). Carbonate diagenesis. Reprint series Vol. 1 of the international association of sedimentologist. Blackwell scientific publications, 181-183.
Tucker, M.E., 2001. Sedimentary Petrology. Third Edition, Blackwell, Oxford, 260.
Velic, I., 2007. Stratigraphy and Palaeobiogeraphy of Mesozoic Benthic Foraminifera of the Karst Dinarides (SE Europa). Geologia Croatica, 60(1), 1-113.