Identification of the Need for a Comprehensive Investigation of Endotoxin in Water Sources

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


With the increase of global environmental concerns, the importance of emerging pollutants is increasing daily. Endotoxin is one of the emerging pollutants whose presence in water sources causes serious risks to human health. This review article aims to investigate the amount of endotoxin in aquatic ecosystems and the potential dangers of endotoxin in these sources. In this study, the general characteristics of endotoxin have been investigated along with practical methods for removing this pollutant from water sources. At first, an overview of endotoxins and their importance in water pollution was given, and the importance of studying endotoxin contamination in water sources and the objectives of this study were determined. Then, the sources of endotoxin contamination in water, the effect of endotoxin on human health, its associated risks, and the relationship between endotoxin levels and its adverse consequences on human health were discussed. The following examined the methods used to measure and detect endotoxin in water samples and the advantages and limitations of each of these methods. Also, different strategies were proposed to control and reduce endotoxin contamination in water sources. Finally, existing regulations and guidelines for endotoxin levels in drinking water and other water sources are explained, and regulatory gaps and frameworks are discussed. The results of this study emphasize the importance of continuous monitoring and management of endotoxin contamination in water sources and the need to increase information about this emerging pollutant to provide practical strategies to maintain water quality and public health.


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