Hydro geochemical properties and groundwater quality using FGQI method from the stand point of Iranian standards and World Health Organization A case study in Naqadeh plain, Iran

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Institute of Technology and Engineering, Standard Research Institute, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran


Excessive exploitation of groundwater resources has negatively affected their equilibrium and the groundwater level in several aquifers. Naghade plain (one of Urmia lake aquifers) requires a proper and qualitative management which has suffered a decline in recent years. One of the most important indicators for assessing and zoning the quality of groundwater is to measure the concentration of water ions and determine the groundwater quality index (GQI) by combining the concentration of ions and their relationship with safe standards. The purpose of this study is to apply GQI and FGQI methods for assessing groundwater quality in Naghade plain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Standard of Iran (INSO). For this purpose, the chemical parameters were used for sampling and analysis of hydro geochemical parameters and compared with the WHO and INSO standards. Due to the uncertainty that exists, the ability of the fuzzy set in the decision making process with the Fuzzy GQI method and the water quality of the area were studied based on the FGQI method. The results of FGQI were based on two WHO and INSO standards of between 0 and 100 variables and groundwater quality in terms of the totally undesirable levels. Finally, the FGQI method in threshold values is considered better than the GQI method and gradual changes in groundwater quality are considered and is a useful method for assessing groundwater quality in the area.


Main Subjects

  1. Al-hadithi, M., 2012. Application of water quality index to assess suitability of groundwater quality for drinking purposes in Ratmao- Pathri Rao watershed, haridwar district India. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 23, 1321-1336.
  2. Alley, W.M., 1993. Regional groundwater quality, van nostrand reinhold, New York. American Public Health Association, 1998. Standard method for the examination of water and waste water. 17th edition. Washington, DC.
  3. Azizi, F. & Mohammadzadeh, H., 2013. Vulnerability zoning and assessment of spatial changes of aquifer quality in Imamzadeh plain of Jafar Gachsaran using DRASTIC-like and GWQI qualitative index. Journal of Water Resources Engineering, 5, 1-14. (In Persian).
  4. Babiker, I.S., Mohamed, M.A.A. & Hiyama, T., 2007. Assessing groundwater quality using GIS. Journal of Water Resources Management. 21, 699-715.
  5. Bardossy, A. & Duckstein, L., 1995. Fuzzy Rule-Based Modeling with Applications to Geophysical, Biological and Engineering Systems. CRC press.
  6. Emberger, L., 1952. Sur le quotient pluviothermique. C.R. Sciences. 234, 2508-2511.
  7. Goldschmit, V.M., 1972. Geochemistry. Oxford University Press, 116, 468-475.
  8. Liou, S.M., Lo, S.L. and Hu, C.Y., 2003. Application of two-stage fuzzy set theory to river quality evaluation in Taiwan. Water Research, 37(6), 1406-1416.
  9. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran 1053, Revision 5, 2009. Physical and Chemical Properties of Drinking Water. (In Persian).
  10. Liu, X., Xu, M.M., Huang, J., Shi, C. & Yu, X.F., 2003. Application of geostatistic and technique to characterize spatial variabilities of bioavailable micronutrients in paddy soils. Journal of Agronomy Environmental, 12(2), 88-91.
  11. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H., Huang, Y.F. & Zhoue, H.D., 2009. A multistage fuzzy-stochastic programming model for supporting sustainable water-resources allocation and management. Environmental Modeling and Software, 24, 786-797.
  12. Nickpeyman, V. & Mohammadzadeh, H., 2013. Evaluation of spatial variations of groundwater quality in Mashhad Plain using GQI index. National Conference on Exploration of Ground Resources, Hamedan University, Hamedan (In Persian).
  13. Norouzi, H., AsghariMogaddam, A. & Nadiri, A.A., 2015. Determining vulnerable areas of Malekan plain Aquifer for Nitrate, Using random forest method. Journal of Environmental Studies; 41(4), 923-994 (In Persian).
  14. Sayyad, H., Mohammadzadeh, H. & Provincial, S., 2012. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater in Druges aquifer for drinking using the Schuler diagram and the GQI index, Siaman gathering of earth sciences. Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, Tehran (In Persian).
  15. Soleimani, S., MahmoudiGharaei, M., Ghasemzadeh, F. & Planet, A., 2013. Investigation of quality changes of west water resources of the red mountain using GQI quality index in GIS environment. Journal of Earth Sciences, 89, 175-189 (In Persian).
  16. West azarbaijan regional water authority, 2013. Preparation of billboard and water cycle in areas of Naghdeh, Miandoab (In Persian).
  17. WHO (World Health Organization), 2008. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization.